Anemia



Signs and Symptoms of Anemia

  • Pallor or hypersensitivity to cold
  • Tiredness and exercise intolerance
  • Palpitations
  • Dizziness
  • Shortness of breath
  • Irritability
  • Difficulty in sleeping
  • Loss concentration
  • Menstrual problems for women
  • Male impotence
  • Tachycardia
  • Severity of hypoxia
  • Symptoms of congestive heart failure
  • Gastrointestinal complaints such as indigestion or loss of appetite
  • Jaundice
  • Rapid pulse - heart tries to compensate for lack of oxygen to cells
  • Decreased hemoglobin, hematocrit
  • Hypotension
  • Bone pain and sternal tenderness - which related to increased erythropoietin activity in bone marrow
 

What Cause Anemia?

  • Decreased in red blood cells production
  • Increase loss of red blood cells
  • Iron and vitamin deficiency in the diet - deficiency anemia in Vitamin B12 is called pernicious anemia
  • Deficient absorption of iron and vitamin in the body - due to Crohn's disease (intestinal disorder) and celiac disease (damage in the lining of the small intestine). Iron-deficiency anemia is one of the most frequent symptoms in adult celiac disease
  • hereditary defects that impair the hemoglobin molecule which result in sickle cell anemia or thalassemia which mostly affects people of East Asia, Mediterranean or Middle Eastern descent.
  • Bone marrow suppression due to drug effects
  • Bone marrow damage as a result of chemotherapy, radiation or renal disease
  • Systemic disease - such as colon cancer or rheumatoid arthritis
  • Infections - insufficient iron levels associated with infection by the bacterium which causes ulcers, Helicobacter pylori
  • External blood loss due to trauma - such as excessive menstruation, a bleeding ulcer
  • Red blood cell destruction (hemolytic anemia)
  • Overactive spleen
  • Certain medication such as aspirin and various nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can result in bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract
 

Prevent Anemia

  ♦ Consume more healthy sources of iron are legumes such as lentils and beans, green leafy vegetables (like spinach), whole grain, egg yolks, dried fruits and organ meats
  ♦ Consume more iron, folate and vitamin B12 which is crucial in maintaining a sufficient number of healthy red blood cells
 

Reference:

  • The Iron Disorders Institute Guide to Anemia By Cheryl Garrison
  • Pathology Recall By Lorne H. Blackbourne, Anikar Chhabra
  • The Iron Disorders Institute Guide to Hemochromatosis By Cheryl Garrison

Anemia - All Types