Uterine Cancer



Diagnosis

  • Pelvic exam
  • CA125 > 65 can predict extrauterine and or lymph node metastasis
  • Papanicolaou (Pap) smear test - detect cervical cancer that uses a thin wooden spatula is inserted into cervix through vagina and is rotated to scrape the cells. It is recommended to do this test yearly by gynecology especially for the first three years after a women becomes sexually active. Nowadays PAP tests are performed using liquid-based methods because additional tests can be performed on the sample collected from the cervix.
  • Computed tomography (CT) scan or Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to evaluate if cancer has spread
  • Calposcope - removal of a little portions of the tissues to visual examination
  • Transvaginal ultrasound
  • Endometrial biopsy - involve inserting a narrow tube into uterus through vagina and suctioning out a some tissues from several areas of the uterine wall
  • Laparotomy - sampling of peritoneal fluid or washings to detect malignant cells
  • Hysteroscopy with dilation and curettage - involve widening the cervix and inserting a curette instrument into uterus through vagina to scrape the uterine wall and collect tissue

Treatment

  • Surgical staging to treat endometrial cancer which include abdominal exploration, peritoneal cytology, hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, selective pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomies
  • Cryosurgery and Laser therapy - destroy abnormal areas of the cervix
  • Radiotherapy - external and internal radiation to shrink the tumor. Often used after surgery to kill the remaining malignant cells or prevent recurrence. Side effects includes fatigue, reddened skin in treated area, discomfort during urination and diarrhea
  • Hormone therapy - use progestin especially uterine cancer which already has spread to other body parts. This therapy may increase appetite and gain weight
  • Chemotherapy - anti-cancer drugs like Progesterone (megestrol acetate), medroxyprogesterone acetate, hydroxyprogesterone, cisplatin, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, hexamethylmelamine
  • Hysterectomy - removal of uterus which ends fertility and cause menopause
  • Systemic therapy - use to treat advanced extra-uterine disease, recurrent disease and metastasis disease
  • Uterine Fibroid Embolization (UFE) - incision of pencil tip size made into groin and from it a catheter is guided through an artery to uterus. Small plastic particles are injected into vessels supplying blood to the fibroid and block the vessels which cut off blood supply to fibroid causing it to shrink and die
  • Aurum Muriaticum Natronatum 3X - remedy to reduce uterus cancer size and cure it
  • Calcarea iodium sX - remedy in fibroid tumors to the uterus when the growth is tender with sharp darting pains
 

Reference:

  • Cancer: An illustrated guide to the treatment of cancer by Keero
  • Uterine Cancer: Screening, Diagnosis and Treatment by Franco Muggia, Esther Oliva
  • John Hopkins Patients' Guide to Uterine Cancer by Teresa P Diaz-Montes
  • Harrison's Manual of Oncology by Bruce Chabner, Thomas J Lynch, Dan L Longo
  • Mosby's handbook of patient teaching By Mary M Canobbio
  • Bethesda Handbook of Clinical Oncology by Jame Abraham, Carmen J Allegra, James L Gulley, James Gulley
     

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